Chapter 1: Psychology: A Science … and a Perspective
Practice Test I


In your textbook, psychology is defined as:

A. the science of mind.
B. the science of behavior processes and mind processes.
C. the science of mind processes and cognitive processes.
D. the science of behavior and cognitive processes.


John B. Watson argued that psychology should involve the study of actions that can be observed and measured, which was the foundation of _____.

A. behaviorism.
B. functionalism.
C. structuralism.
D. humanism.


The question of "stability versus change" involves the extent to which:

A. psychology's experimental findings remain stable or change over time.
B. characteristics and behavior of individuals remain stable or change over time.
C. behavior in experiments remains stable over a long period of time or changes over this period.
D. IQ measures stay the same or change over time.


Ralph drives a drag racer on the weekends and is always very excited every time he finishes his runs down the strip. The _____ would explain his behavior by pointing out humans' inherited desire for excitement.

A. cognitive perspective.
B. behavioral perspective.
C. psychodynamic perspective.
D. biological perspective.


The greatest number of psychologists are in the subfields of:

A. clinical and counseling psychology.
B. developmental and educational psychology.
C. cognitive and industrial/organizational psychology.
D. social and industrial/organizational psychology.


The branch of psychology that suggests that humans possess a large number of psychological mechanisms that help us deal with issues related to survival is called:

A. structuralist psychology.
B. functionalist psychology.
C. evolutionary psychology.
D. behaviorist psychology.


The four essential components of the scientific method are:

A. intuition, objectivity, accuracy, open-mindedness.
B. accuracy, creativity, internal validity, objectivity.
C. objectivity, training, skepticism, external validity.
D. accuracy, objectivity, skepticism, open-mindedness.


The tendency to perceive that just because something is easy to remember it must be important represents:

A. the confirmation bias.
B. the representative heuristic.
C. the availability heuristic.
D. the holistic bias.


Being skeptical, keeping an open mind, and not jumping to conclusions are characteristics of:

A. a negative approach to life.
B. dispositional attribute.
C. critical thinking.
D. analytical thinking.


In the survey method, trying to get a large enough group of people that is representative of the larger population is a problem of:

A. correlation.
B. definition.
C. accessibility.
D. sampling.


If the number of storks (birds) in an area is fairly high, the number of human births 9 months later will be fairly high. Therefore, storks cause babies. This example points out the difficulty with:

A. experimentation.
B. case method.
C. correlation.
D. ornithology. Ornithology is incorrect because it deals with birds, not cause and effect relationships among birds and humans. Review page 27 in your textbook.


Relationship is to cause-and-effect as:

A. case study is to natural observation.
B. naturalistic observation is to case study.
C. correlation is to experiment.
D. experiment is to correlation.


Lisa is getting ready to conduct an experiment and, for convenience, has decided to put all students from an 8:30am class in the experimental group and all students from the 2:30pm class in the control group. Lisa has just violated the condition of:

A. random assignment of participants.
B. equality of variables.
C. cause-and-effect.
D. replication of comparable conditions.


Which of the following is an important reason for using animals as research subjects in psychology?

A. There are no ethical rules that limit what research can be performed with animals.
B. All important human psychological abilities can be found in animals.
C. Some kinds of research are allowed with animals but not with humans.
D. Nothing: there are no important, ethically justified reasons for using animals in research.


The reason that you should begin studying with an overview of the material to be studied is that memory research indicates that it is easier to retain information if it is placed in a:

A. ordered list.
B. cognitive framework.
C. conative association.
D. rehearsal format.

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