Chapter 5: Learning: How We're Changed by Experience
Practice Test II


Operant and classical conditioning are forms of:

A. vicarious learning.
B. cognitive processes.
C. learning.
D. desensitization.


When studying classical conditioning, subjects would often salivate at the sight of the pan where food was kept. In this case, salivating at the sight of the pan is an example of:

A. an unconditioned stimulus.
B. an unconditioned response.
C. a conditioned stimulus.
D. a conditioned response.


A situation in which a shock comes on and goes off before the onset of a light is called:

A. delay conditioning.
B. simultaneous conditioning.
C. backward conditioning.
D. trace conditioning.


The eventual decline and disappearance of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus is known as:

A. spontaneous recovery.
B. blocking.
C. acquisition.
D. extinction.


The fact that certain types of conditioning that are readily accomplished by one species are only slowly acquired by another species is usually explained in the context of:

A. instinctive drift.
B. biological constraints on learning.
C. stimulus generalization.
D. the Premack principle.


The idea that cognitive processes play a role in classical conditioning is supported by studies on _____.

A. conative relationships
B. behavior in an operant chamber
C. mental imagery
D. affective relationships


Stimulus events or consequences that strengthen responses that come before them are called:

A. operant stimuli.
B. unconditioned stimuli.
C. positive reinforcers.
D. omission stimuli.


A procedure by which the application or removal of a particular type of stimulus decreases the strength of a behavior is called:

A. extinction.
B. reinforcement.
C. punishment.
D. spontaneous recovery.


A process whereby subjects are given reinforcers for engaging in behaviors that get closer and closer to some target behavior is called:

A. flooding.
B. tracing.
C. chaining.
D. shaping.


25. The concept of a "cognitive map" refers to an organism's:

A. beliefs about their schedule of reinforcement.
B. expectations that the US will follow the CS.
C. discriminative control over a stimulus.
D. mental representation of its environment.

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